Nevado Mismi

Amazon_origin_at_Mismi
Photo by Jialiang Gao, via Wikimedia Commons.

While several countries have sent sports teams to Brazil, one country has sent something much more important. The massive Amazon River, providing life to the rainforest that houses a third of all species in the world, originates from a small glacial stream in Peru.

The Amazon meanders through Brazil all the way from its western borders to the Atlantic ocean in the east. Along the way, it picks up streams from all over the northern half of South America, but by definition the origin of a river is the source that is furthest away from the end of the stream.  For the Amazon, that source is found on a mountain in the Peruvian Andes, called Nevado (snowy) Mismi.

Mismi was first identified as the origin of the Amazon by Loren McIntyre in 1971. Jacques Cousteau’s 1982 Amazon Expedition also led to Mismi as source. Other expeditions confirmed this in 1996, 2001, and 2007. So, we’re pretty sure that this insignificant-looking pond in the Andes is the furthest source of the largest river in the world.

According to Wikipedia, the site is only marked by a small wooden cross (see photo above), but when Ed Stafford set out to walk the full length of the Amazon from source to sea in 2008, he discovered that this was not entirely true:

“Within minutes we could see the cross and scrambled up the rocks to get to it. On our way we found a plaque announcing we were at the source. We ignored it and pushed on as “Wiki” can’t be wrong.

When we arrived at the source it was as we imagined: a steady spring of water coming out of the cliff above us and a nice white wooden cross. We took lots of photos but as we were about to leave we saw, twenty meters below, an iron cross. On inspecting, this cross had been erected by another expedition, this time in 1971.”

There is no single source at Mismi. Glacial streams emerge from the rocks at various places at different times. Stafford continues:

“Four completely separate teams have given four different locations as the source. The mountain is glaciated and covered in snow, there are water bodies and sub-glacial streams galore above all four “sources”.

So we decided to stop playing the silly “which source is the true source?” game and decided that we were happy that we had summitted the mountain on which the furthest tributary of the Amazon springs, and we were on our way to walking the length of the Amazon.”

Now, that is a sport.

Science Caturday: GOOOOOOOAAAALLLL

soccer

The World Cup kicked off in Brazil this week, promising lots of excitement and drama for sports fans. For science lovers? Well, I found a pretty darn interesting article by Rose Eveleth about how design innovations make this year’s special World Cup ball perform better than its predecessors.

She also wrote this great, slightly scary piece about how many people will get dengue fever, a mosquito-borne illness common in Brazil.  The tournament just started, but Rose Eveleth is looking like a favorite to take the World Cup science-writing crown. You can follow her on twitter here.

 

 

Man Kicks Ball

Thanks to science, a paraplegic man stood up in an exoskeleton controlled by his mind and made the opening kick of the 2014 World Cup.

Alan Boyle has an excellent summary of the event, research, and debate about the resources invested in this event for NBC News.