Author Archives: Josh Witten

What I Don’t Know About Flyingfish

Steve N. G. Howell’s The Amazing World of Flyingfish plays with the concept that eveyone “knows” about flyingfish as a way to highlight the huge gaps in our knowledge about these iconic fish. Those areas of ignorance can have dramatic and direct impacts on conservation and sustainable fishing issues.

At its heart, The Amazing World of Flyingfish is a book of pictures – beautiful and hard-won pictures (photographing flyingfish in flight is apparently, but not surprisingly, challenging). The images are not just aesthetically pleasing. They serve Howell’s major theme, contrasting the known with the unknown.

Photo Credit: Steve N. G. Howell (All Rights Reserved; Used with Permission of Publisher)

Photo Credit: Steve N. G. Howell (All Rights Reserved; Used with Permission of Publisher)

On one hand, flyingfish are common and well-known. On the other hand, we do not necessarily know that much about their life history, development, or how many species their really are. Howell uses this contrast between the known and unknown to discuss different aproaches to research. The benefits of briefly viewing live animals behaving in their natural environment are compared to detailed laboratory analyses of preserved specimens in a way that shows the value of both approaches. The problems posed by limited knowledge of species identity for conservation and sustainable fishing are discussed with a thoughtful approach to the value of common usage versus scientific naming.

And, if those issues do not interest you, the book is filled with over 90 gorgeous photos of flyingfish in action, revealing aspects of these animals that were entirely new to me.

The dynamic of known versus unknown played out when my six-year-old joined me in looking over this book. The beauty of the images and the name “flyingfish” immediately captured our attention. Then we got curious.

As I am not an expert in flyingfish, fish, nor any set of multicellular organisms, that meant we were rapidly going to bump into the familiar territory of “things to which Daddy does not know the answer”.  This is fun territory, because we get to go on the journey from “not knowing” to “knowing” together.

We asked the question, “Do they really fly?” We learned that you cannot answer such questions with a simple “yes/no”. We first had to decide what we meant by “fly”. We were learning about the process of asking and answering questions.

When Howell discusses the difficulty of pairing juvenille specimens with adults in terms of species identity, we talked about physiological changes in appearance during development and the expectation that her own body would change as she grew.

One image, however, did not draw us in. The altered image of a human-sized, trophy-style flyingfish confused and distracted. Instead of discussing the fascinating biology of flyingfish, I had to explain that the huge fish was not real, the ethics (or lack thereof) of trophy fishing, and Photoshop. The worst effect was that it planted a seed of doubt about the veracity of the book’s other photos in my child’s mind.

Nothing, for us, could compate to the realization that some flyingfish have butterfly-like patterns on their transluscent wings/fins*. Howell connects this delightful discovery to the larger problem of species identification, which is vital to conservation efforts. Apparently, the patterns do not survive the preservation of specimens, leading to a divergence in what one sees in the wild and what is analyzed in the laboratory. For Howell, the species identification problem cascades into many unknowns regarding flyingfish life history, population sizes, distribution, and seasonal variation.

For us, the conversation started by those beautiful wing patterns touched on the importance of different people with different interests and experiences communicating with each other. We even talked about what we can do to build knowledge when no one know the information we need. In other words, we can draw a direct, curiosity driven line between that image of yellow and black spotted flyingfish wings/fins* that you can see above and reinforcement of the scientific method. Not bad for a book with only 45-pages in it.

*I was informed by my precocious offspring that I am not allowed to call them “fings”.

DISCLOSURE: Josh Witten was provided with a review copy of The Amazing World of Flyingfish by Princeton University Press. Princeton University Press had no input or influence over the decision to review this book or the content of this review.

Science for the People: Amazons

sftpThis week, Science for the People is learning how science can shed light on the stories told by our ancestors. They’re joined by folklorist and science historian Adrienne Mayor, author of The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, to learn what archaeology can tell us about legendary warrior women in cultures from around the world. They also talk to anthropologist John Hawks to learn how researchers gain insights from ancient human remains.

*Josh provides research help to Science for the People and is, therefore, completely biased.

A Lab of Their Own

The sciencing of A League of Their Own  (#ALabofTheirOwn) reminded me a bit of the sciencing of Conan the Barbarian (#ConanthePostDoc). Both films have great scripts, with great lines; but most people only remember one or two. People other than me do not have the scripts burnt into their souls.

That is ok. In fact, it is better than ok. As Jimmy Dugan says to Dottie Hinson:

It’s supposed to be hard. If it wasn’t hard, everyone would do it. The hard… is what makes it great.

It was not easy, but I think we found a few gems that speak honestly to the practice of science now.

Screenshot 2014-12-14 20.58.18

Some of the lines were so relevant that observers mistook them for actually commentary.

One would hope that a movie about women playing baseball in the 1940s would not be relevant to science today.

The #ALabofTheirOwn storify makes up for its lack of quantity with some real quality, but I’m biased.

Spirography

Created by Josh Witten using Inspirograph (by Nathan Friend)

Created by Josh Witten using Inspirograph (by Nathan Friend)

For folks of a certain age (ie, approximately my age), set your “Nostalgia” dial to 11. Nathan Friend has created an addictive, online version of the spirograph called Inspirograph. Enjoy.

According to Friend, a mobile app is in the works.

HT: Brian Kelly and Sheila McNeill

Dignity

There’s one thing that’s real clear to me,
no one dies with dignity.
We just try to ignore the elephant somehow.
-Jason Isbell, “Elephant”

Is “dignity” about maintaining the illusion that the craziness happening around you isn’t happening? If so, acting in a “dignified” manner in the midst of circumstances like impending death or protesting civil rights abuses is the least dignified thing you can do.

“Dignity” also seems to involve self-denial of things that are fun that hurt no one, perhaps in favor of doing things that are not fun, but hurt lots of people. The British Empire was very dignified.

If growing up means
It would be beneath my dignity to climb a tree,
I’ll never grow up, never grow up, never grow up
Not me!
-“I Won’t Grow Up”, Peter Pan

Also, skipping (aka, bipedal galloping). Skipping is joyous.

skipping

by Josh Witten (All Rights Reserved)